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oncology1

Bone Cancer

Bone cancer is one of the most uncommon forms of cancer that can affect any bone in the body. It destroys healthy bone tissue and forms a malignant bone tumor.

Signs & Symptoms:

  • Bone Pain
  • Swelling
  • Fractures
  • Uncontrolled weight loss
  • Fatigue

Risk Factors:

  • Genetic disorders
  • Radiation Therapy for Cancers / Exposure to Radiation
  • Injuries
  • Idiopathic

Common Types:

  • Osteosarcoma (also called osteogenic sarcoma)
  • Ewing’s sarcoma
  • Chondrosarcoma
  • Spindle cell sarcoma
  • Chordoma
  • Angiosarcoma

Diagnosis:

  • Physical Examination
  • Blood tests
  • X-ray
  • Bone Scan
  • Computed Tomography (CT) scan
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
  • Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Scan
  • Integrated PET-CT Scan
  • Angiogram - An x-ray of blood vessels
  • Biopsy

Stages:

  • Stage I – At this stage, bone cancer is limited to the bone and hasn’t spread to other areas of the body. Stage I cancer is low grade, which means the cancer cells are less aggressive.
  • Stage II - This stage of bone cancer is also limited to the bone and hasn’t spread to other areas of the body. But Stage II cancer is high grade, which means the cancer cells are more aggressive.
  • Stage III - At this stage, bone cancer occurs in two or more places on the same bone. Stage III tumors can be either low or high grade.
  • Stage IV - This stage of bone cancer indicates that cancer has spread beyond the bone to other areas of the body, such as other bones or internal organs.

Prevention:

  • Don’t use tobacco
  • Eat a healthy diet
  • Maintain a healthy weight and be physically active
  • Protect yourself from the sun
  • Get immunized
  • Hepatitis B
  • Human papillomavirus (HPV)
  • Avoid risky behaviors
  • Get regular medical care

Management:

Treatment options for bone cancer include surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy.

  • Surgery is the usual treatment for bone cancer.
  • Chemotherapy is the use of anticancer drugs to kill cancer cells.
  • Radiation therapy, also called radiotherapy, involves the use of high-energy x-rays to kill cancer cells.

Options to treat bone cancer depend on the type, size, location, and stage of the cancer, as well as the patients age and general health. In most cases, the initial treatment is surgery. Although amputation of a limb is sometimes necessary, pre- or post-operative chemotherapy has made limb-sparing surgery possible in many cases. When appropriate, surgeons avoid amputation by removing only the cancerous section of the bone and replacing it with an artificial device called prosthesis.

Chemotherapy and radiation may also be used alone or in combination. Other treatments include multidrug chemotherapy and radiation therapy

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