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oncology1

Cervical Cancer

It is due to the abnormal growth of cells that have the ability to invade or spread to other parts of the body.

Signs & Symptoms:

  • Abnormal vaginal bleeding
  • Pelvic pain or pain during sexual intercourse
  • Bleeding after sex
  • An unusual discharge from the vagina − the discharge may contain some blood and may occur between your periods or after menopause

Risk Factors:

  • Female gender
  • Age
  • Human papillomavirus (HPV)
  • Family history and genetic conditions
  • Smoking
  • A weak immune system
  • Birth control pills
  • Starting sex at a young age
  • Having many sexual partners

Common Types:

  • Squamous Cell
  • Adenocarcinoma

Diagnosis:

  • Pap test
  • Pelvic examination
  • HPV typing
  • Colposcopy
  • Biopsy.
  • Pelvic examination
  • Cystoscopy
  • Proctoscopy (also called a sigmoidoscopy)
  • Laparoscopy
  • Endocervical curettage (ECC)
  • LEEP (Loop electro-surgical excision procedure)
  • X-ray
  • Computed tomography (CT or CAT) scan
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
  • Positron emission tomography (PET) scan

Stages:

  • Stage 0: The tumor is called carcinoma in situ. In other words, the cancer is found only in the first layer of cells lining the cervix, not in the deeper tissues. Carcinoma in situ is not considered to be an invasive cancer.
  • Stage I: The cancer has spread from the cervix lining into the deeper tissue but is still just found in the uterus. It has not spread to lymph nodes or other parts of the body.
  • Stage II: The cancer has spread beyond the cervix to nearby areas, such as the vagina or tissue near the cervix, but it is still inside the pelvic area. It has not spread to lymph nodes or other parts of the body
  • Stage III: The cancer has spread outside of the cervix and vagina but not to the lymph nodes or other parts of the body
  • Stage IV-A: The cancer has spread to the bladder or rectum and may or may not have spread to the lymph nodes, but it has not spread to other parts of the body.
  • Stage IV-B: The cancer has spread to other parts of the body.

Prevention:

  • Practice safe sex
  • HPV Vaccination
  • Avoid smoking
  • Use of condoms
  • Regular screening for early detection to avoid progression

Management:

The treatment of cervical cancer depends on several factors, including the type and stage of cancer, possible side effects, and the woman’s preferences and overall health. The care plan may also include treatment for symptoms and side effects, an important part of cancer care. Treatment options include:

  • Surgery
    Surgery is the removal of the tumor and surrounding tissue during an operation. The nature and extent of surgical intervention depends on the stage and spread of the cancerous tumor as well as the patient’s overall health and fitness to withstand such a procedure apart from the assessment of post surgical prognosis
  • Radiation Therapy
    Radiation therapy is the use of high-energy x-rays or other particles to destroy cancer cells. Radiation therapy may be given alone, before surgery, or instead of surgery to shrink the tumor. Many women may be treated with a combination of radiation therapy and chemotherapy.
  • Chemotherapy
    Chemotherapy is the use of drugs to destroy cancer cells, usually by stopping the cancer cells’ ability to grow and divide. The patient might require multiple cycles of chemotherapy at regular intervals. The same may be in addition to surgery +/- radiotherapy

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